Nell’ultimo mese si sono susseguite un’infinità di notizie (spesse volte, ahimè, decisamente molto superficiali) in merito alle conseguenze circa le violazioni alle prescrizioni imposte da Governo e Regioni per il contenimento dell’epidemia da COVID-19.
Le interpretazioni ed applicazioni normative sono state innumerevoli e decisamente interessanti.
Abbiamo a lungo atteso un dettato normativo chiaro e preciso in merito a questa problematica giuridica, ma anche tanto “umana” e di interesse collettivo e così, finalmente, è stato adottato il decreto legge 25 marzo 2020, n°19, pubblicato in Gazzetta Ufficiale nella stessa data, che ha posto un punto in tema di sanzioni applicabili.
Che cosa ci dice, quindi, tale decreto?
Analizziamolo in maniera semplice e il più chiara possibile.
All’art. 4 comma 1 prevede che: “1. Salvo che il fatto costituisca reato, il mancato rispetto delle misure di contenimento di cui all’articolo 1, comma 2, individuate e applicate con i provvedimenti adottati ai sensi dell’articolo 2, comma 1, ovvero dell’articolo 3, e’ punito con la sanzione amministrativa del pagamento di una somma da euro 400 a euro 3.000 e non si applicano le sanzioni contravvenzionali previste dall’articolo 650 del codice penale o da ogni altra disposizione di legge attributiva di poteri per ragioni di sanita’, di cui all’articolo 3, comma 3. Se il mancato rispetto delle predette misure avviene mediante l’utilizzo di un veicolo le sanzioni sono aumentate fino a un terzo.”
Alla sanzione di cui all’art. 650 c.p. si sostituisce, pertanto, la sanzione amministrativa del pagamento di una somma da 400 a 3.000 euro, somma che (si leggano i commi successivi) può essere raddoppiata in caso di reiterata violazione della medesima prescrizione.
Si noti che tale sostituzione della sanzione penale con quella amministrativa si applica anche (art.4, comma 8, D.L. 25.03.2020 n°19) “retroattivamente” ovvero per le violazioni commesse prima dell’entrata in vigore di tale decreto con il limite dei procedimenti definiti con sentenza irrevocabile (di fatto, nessuno), ma nella misura minima ridotta della metà.
La sanzione penale permane invece come ipotesi residuale, ovvero per punire chi, risultato positivo al virus, violi la misura della quarantena: in tal caso, salvo che il fatto non costituisca violazione dell’art. 452 c.p. (“delitti colposi contro la salute pubblica” che prevede rispettivamente la pena della reclusione da 1 a 5 anni o da 6 mesi a 3 anni a seconda che i fatti di cui agli artt. 438 e 439 c.p. siano puniti con l’ergastolo o con la reclusione), o comunque piu’ grave reato, la violazione della misura di cui all’articolo 1, comma 2, lettera e), è punita ai sensi dell’articolo 260 del regio decreto 27 luglio 1934, n. 1265, Testo unico delle leggi sanitarie, ma le parole «con l’arresto fino a sei mesi e con l’ammenda da lire 40.000 a lire 800.000» sono sostituite dalle seguenti: «con l’arresto da 3 mesi a 18 mesi e con l’ammenda da euro 500 ad euro 5.000».
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